To assess the potential cytostatic properties of Pt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxymethylpyridine (3-hmpy) as the only carrier ligand, novel cis-[PtCl2(3-hmpy)2] (1) and trans-[PtCl2(3-hmpy)2] (2) have been prepared. Elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography were used to determine their structures. Based on the results obtained with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and clonogenic assay on T24 human bladder carcinoma cells (T24), the most potent compound 2 was further tested for cytotoxicity in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines - cisplatin sensitive (IGROV 1) and its resistant subclone (IGROV 1/RDDP). The cytotoxicity of compound 2 in IGROV 1/RDDP is comparable to cisplatin. Furthermore, compound 2 induced severe conformational changes in plasmid DNA, which resulted in a delayed onset of apoptosis in T24 cells, and higher amounts of Pt in tumours and serum compared to cisplatin. In addition, in vivo antitumour effectiveness was comparable to that of cisplatin with a smaller reduction of animals' body weight, thus demonstrating that it is a promising transplatin analogue which deserves further studies.
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The methane reducing effect of A. taxiformis during rumen fermentation of feed makes this macroalgae a promising candidate as a biotic methane mitigation strategy for California dairy producers. The organic matter inclusion required to achieve such a drastic decrease in methane is low enough to be practically incorporated in the rations of average dairy operations. Significant limitations to the implementation of A. taxiformis, and potentially other algae, include the infrastructure and capital necessary to make these products commercially available and affordable. Furthermore, our understanding of the host microbe interactions during seaweed supplementation are limited. In order to obtain a holistic understanding of the biochemistry responsible for the significant reduction of methane, and its potential long-term impact on ruminants, gene expression profiles of the rumen microbiome and the host animal are warranted.
To investigate slow-acting effects of seaweed addition on microbiome communities, we computed Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (β-diversity)  between pairs of samples, both within vessels at different time points, and between vessels at identical time points. We also considered Jaccard dissimilarity which only reflects community composition and not relative abundance, but found similar results and so only report the results for Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. We independently computed β-diversity at the genus, family, order, class, and phylum level to assess whether the observed patterns were dependent on taxonomic resolution. For regression statistics, we computed 95% confidence intervals using non-parametric bootstrap resampling, and significance values using permutation tests. Both of the latter approaches gave qualitatively similar results. All analyses were performed using custom-written Java, SQL, and Bash code available at